|WHITE SHEPHERD STANDARDS
||White Swiss Shepherd - FCI standard 347 18.12.2002
||AWSA White Shepherd Breed Standard 12.10.2002
||UKC White Shepherd Breed Standard 14.04.1999 (revised 01.10.2008)
| Standard holder
||The American White Shepherd Association
||United Kennel Club in America
| Character and Utilization
||Behaviour/Character: Lively, without nervousness, attentive and watchful; towards strangers sometimes slightly aloof but never apprehensive or aggressive. Utilization: Family and working companion dog with distinctive friendly nature to children; attentive watchdog, cheerful and quick to learn. Classification F.C.I.: Group 1 Sheepdogs and Cattle Dogs (except Swiss Cattle Dogs). Section 1 Sheepdogs. Without working trial.
||The White Shepherd has a distinct personality marked by a direct, but not hostile expression of self-confidence. It is poised but when the situation demands, it should be eager and alert, ready to serve in any capacity such as companion, watch dog or service dog. To his inherent aptitude as a guardian of flocks should be an added protectiveness of the person and property of his family. With those he knows well, he should be open and friendly. With strangers, he should be observant and may be somewhat aloof but never apprehensive. Timidity, shrinking behind the handler, lack of confidence or any other display of poor character or aggression are severe faults. Dogs displaying such pronounced character flaws should be excused from the ring. Any dog that attempts to bite the judge must be disqualified.
|| The White Shepherd has a distinct personality marked by self-confidence. The White Shepherd is poised, but when the situation demands, is eager and alert, ready to serve in any capacity. White Shepherds demonstrate both herding and protective instincts. With those he knows, the White Shepherd is open and friendly.
With strangers, he is observant and may be somewhat aloof but not apprehensive. Timidity in a mature dog or aggressive behavior is not typical of this breed and should be severely penalized.
||In USA and Canada white shepherd dogs have gradually become to be accepted as a distinct breed. The first dogs of this breed were imported into Switzerland in the early 70ies. The American male “Lobo”, whelped on 5th March 1966, can be considered as the progenitor of the breed in Switzerland. The descendants of that male registered with the Swiss Stud Book (LOS) and other white shepherd dogs imported from USA and Canada, gradually multiplied. There exists now a big number of white shepherd dogs, pure-bred, over several generations, distributed throughout Europe. For that reason, since June 1991, these dogs have been registered as a new breed with the appendix of the Swiss Stud Book (LOS).
||The White Shepherd is a direct descendent of the German Shepherd Dog and the two breeds share common roots and are similar in appearance. However, the White Shepherd evolved from a continuous selection for a working companion dog with that exclusive color, beauty and elegance as seen both standing and in motion. His high degree of intelligence and sense of loyalty have allowed him to become one of the most versatile working dogs serving mankind.
||The White Shepherd is a direct descendant of the German Shepherd Dog. In the first half of the twentieth century, German cavalry officer Max von Stephanitz, created the German Shepherd Dog using a variety of German sheepdogs as his foundation stock. Initially, color was not considered as long as the dog demonstrated working ability. During the late 30s, however, the white color fell into disfavor. There were, however, always breeders who appreciated the beauty of the white dogs and who continued to breed them. Because of their exclusion from most German Shepherd Dog breeding programs, the whites rather quickly evolved into a distinct type, and eventually into a separate breed. The White Shepherd was recognized by the United Kennel Club on April 14, 1999.
| General appearance
||A powerful, well-muscled, medium-sized, white shepherd dog with erect ears, double coat or long double coat; elongated shape; medium sized bone and elegant, harmonious outline.
||The White Shepherd is a well developed and balanced animal with the look of intelligence, energy and purpose in life. It should have a regal appearance with secondary sex characteristics being distinctive. The dog should be somewhat longer than tall, with smooth curves rather than sharp angles. Extremes of anything distort type and are to be strongly discouraged. This is a herding dog that must have the agility, freedom of movement and endurance to do the work required of it. When gaiting, the dog should move smoothly, with all parts working in harmony. Overall balance, strength, and firmness of movement is to be given more emphasis than a sidegait showing a flying trot.
||The White Shepherd is a medium-sized, well-balanced, muscular dog, slightly longer than tall, with a medium length, pure white coat, erect ears, and a low-set natural tail that normally reaches to the hock and is carried in a slight curve like a saber. The outline of the White Shepherd is made up of smooth curves rather than angles. Gender differences are readily apparent. The White Shepherd should be evaluated as an all-around working dog, and exaggerations or faults should be penalized in proportion to how much they deviate from breed type; and how much they interfere with the dog’s ability to work.
| Size and proportions
||Moderately long rectangular shape: body length (from the point of shoulder to point of buttock) to height at withers = 12 : 10. The distance from the stop to the noseleather slightly beyond the distance from the stop to the occipital protuberance. Size and Weight:
Height at withers: Dogs 60 - 66 cm.
Bitches 55 - 61 cm.
Weight: Dogs : ca. 30 - 40 kg.
Bitches: ca. 25 - 35 kg.
Typical dogs with slight under- or oversize should not be eliminated.
||Body Proportion: The dog is somewhat longer than tall, the ideal ratio of length to height being 10 to 8.8. E.g., 28.4 inches (72.1 cm) long to 25 inches (63.5 cm) high. Body length is measured from the prosternum to the point of the buttocks. Height is measured from the highest point of the shoulder blade to the ground. Ideal height and weight is 25 inches (63.5 cm) and roughly 75-85 pounds (34-39 kgms) for males, and 23 inches (58.4 cm) and about 60-70 pounds (27-32 kgms) for bitches. Acceptable range of height is about 1 inch (3 cm) in either direction of the ideal. Any dog that is so over or undersize as to be outside of the acceptable range is highly objectionable and should be faulted.
||Ideal height and weight at maturity is 25 inches, and 75-85 pounds for males; and 23 inches and about 60-70 pounds for females. Acceptable range of height is one inch of height in either direction of the ideal. Serious Fault: More than 2 inches of height in either direction of the ideal.
Strong, dry and finely chiselled, in good proportion to the body. Seen from above and from the side wedge-shaped. Axes of skull and foreface parallel.
Skull : Only slightly rounded; indicated central furrow.
Stop : Slightly marked, but clearly perceptible.
Nose: Medium-sized; black pigmentation desired; snow nose and lighter nose accepted.
Muzzle : Powerful and moderately long in relation to the skull; nasal bridge and lower line of muzzle straight, slightly convergent to the nose.
Lips: Dry , closing tightly, as black as possible.
Jaws/Teeth: Powerful and complete, scissor bite. The teeth should be set square to the jaw.
Eyes: Medium-sized, almond shaped, placed a little obliquely; colour brown to dark-brown; eye lids well fitting with black eye-rims desirable.
Ears: Erect ears, set high, carried upright, parallel and directed forward; in the shape of an oblong, at the tip slightly rounded triangle.
||Proportionate in size to the body. Males should show masculinity without coarseness; bitches should show femininity without being over-refined. Both sexes should exhibit a look of intelligence and nobility. Skull -- Viewed from the top, the skull is wedge-shaped, clean cut and strong. When viewed from the side, the topline of the skull should parallel that of the top of the muzzle and there should be a moderate stop. There should be no tendency toward an overly long, narrow or Collie-like head. Insufficient stop or a round or domed skull is faulty. Muzzle -- The muzzle is strong and dry and the lips fit tightly over the well-developed jaws. The nose should be black. Viewed from above, the muzzle appears wider at the stop than at the tip and there should be no tendency toward cheekiness. A snipy muzzle or a receding lower jaw is faulty. Eyes -- Brown, dark for preference. The eye rims should be black. The expression is keen and intelligent, yet composed. The eyes are medium sized, almond shaped, and set a little obliquely. Round or protruding eyes are faulty. Blue or pink eyes disqualify a dog. Ears - Size in proportion to the rest of the head. The ears are moderately pointed and open toward the front. They are carried erect when at attention. The ideal carriage is one at which the center lines of the ears, from the front, are parallel and perpendicular both to each other and to the ground. Soft ears spoil the desired noble and alert expression and are faulty. Cropped or hanging ears are a disqualifying fault. Teeth -- 20 upper and 22 lower; a full mouth is preferred. Dogs missing more than one premolar should be faulted. Broken teeth are not considered a fault. The teeth meet in a close scissors bite. A level bite is faulty. An overshot bite is a severe fault. A dog exhibiting an undershot mouth must be disqualified.
|| The head is proportional to the size of the dog. Males appear masculine without coarseness, and females feminine without being overly fine. The skull and muzzle are of equal length, parallel to one another, and joined at a moderate stop. There is little or no median furrow.
Faults: Overly long, narrow, or Collie-like head; insufficient stop.
SKULL - The skull is broad and nearly flat. In males, the skull is slightly wider than it is long; in females, the skull is slightly narrower. Viewed from the top, the skull tapers evenly from the ears toward the muzzle. There is no tendency toward cheekiness.
Fault: Round or domed skull.
MUZZLE - The muzzle is strong and dry with well-developed jaws. Viewed from above, the muzzle is wider at the stop than at the tip. Lips are tight and darkly pigmented.
Faults: Snipey muzzle; receding lower jaw.
Disqualification: Total lack of pigment on lips.
TEETH - The White Shepherd has a complete set (20 upper and 22 lower) of evenly spaced, white teeth meeting in a scissors bite. Broken teeth shall not be penalized.
Faults: Missing first premolars; level bite.
Serious Fault: Missing teeth other than first premolars; overshot.
Disqualifications: Undershot; wry mouth.
NOSE - The nose is always black. A “snow nose” is acceptable but not preferred.
Disqualification: Total lack of nose pigment.
EYES - The eyes are brown, of medium size, almond-shaped and set slightly obliquely. Darker colored eyes are preferred. Eye rims are dark. Expression is keen and intelligent, yet composed.
Faults: Round or protruding eyes.
Disqualifications: Blue or pink eyes; total lack of pigment on eye rims.
EARS - Ears are erect, moderately pointed, of medium size, broad at the base, and set high. Ear leather is firm. When the dog is alert, the center lines of the ears, viewed from the front, are perpendicular to the ground and parallel to each other.
Disqualifications: Cropped ears; drop or tipped ears.
| Neck, topline, body
Medium-long and well muscled, with harmonious set on at the body, without dewlap; the elegantly arched neckline runs without disruption from the moderately high carried head to the withers.
Body: Strong, muscular, medium-long.
Back: Level, firm.
Loins: Strongly muscled.
Croup: Long and of medium breadth; from the set on gently sloping to root of tail.
Chest: Not too broad; deep (about 50 % of the height at the withers); reaching to the elbows; ribcage oval; well extending to the rear. Prominent forechest.
Belly and flanks : Flanks slender, firm; underline moderately tucked up.
Tail: Bushy sabre tail, tapering to the tip; set on rather deep; reaching at least to the hock joint; at rest, it hangs either straight down or with a slight saber-like curve in its last third part; in movement carried higher, but never above the topline.
Limbs: Strong, sinewy, medium bone.
||Neck -- Length is proportionate to the size of the head. The neck is strong, muscular and dry. Except when at attention or excited, the typical carriage of the head is forward rather than up, particularly in motion. A ewe neck or one that is too short or throaty is faulty. Topline -- The withers should be higher than and slightly sloping into the back. There should be no evidence of a dip behind the wither, nor should the topline itself sag or roach from the wither to the croup. Body -- Solid without bulkiness. The White Shepherd should be shown in lean, hard physical condition. Chest -- The forechest is well filled and the prosternum is prominent. The chest is deep with the brisket reaching to the elbows. A shelly chest is objectionable. Depth of chest should be approximately 48 to 50 percent of the total height of the dog. Ribs -- The ribs are long, well sprung, and are carried well back. The shape of the chest is important. It must never be so wide or round as to interfere with the action of the elbows and the forelegs. Neither must it be so flat as to cause the elbows to pinch in. Underline -- Only moderately tucked up in the flank -- never like that of a Greyhound. The abdomen is firmly held and never paunchy. Back -- The back is short, straight and strongly developed. Loin -- Viewed from the top, broad and strong. From the side, the loin is relatively short and blends smoothly into the back. Croup -- Long and gradually sloping, flowing smoothly into a low set tail. In the ideal dog, the croup slopes gently away at an approximate angle of 23° from the horizontal. Too level or flat a croup prevents proper functioning of the hindquarter, which must be able to reach well under the body. A steep croup also limits the action of the hindquarter. Tail -- Bushy, with the last vertebrae extended at least to the hock joint and usually below. At rest, it hangs straight down or in a slight saber-like curve. Even in excitement, the dog should never lift its tail higher than right angles to the backline. The tail is important. The dog uses its tail like a rudder enabling it to keep its balance while being able to turn instantly. In motion, the ideal carriage of the tail is at or slightly below the natural extension of the topline. It is permissible for a dog to carry its tail a bit higher, although the tendency toward a gay tail spoils the overall outline of the dog. A dog with a too short tail or a docked tail must be disqualified.
Length is proportional to the size of the head. The neck is strong, muscular, and dry. Except when at attention or excited, the typical carriage of the head is forward rather than up, particularly when the dog is in motion.
Faults: Ewe neck; dewlap.
The White Shepherd is solid without bulkiness and should be shown in lean, hard physical condition. A properly proportioned White Shepherd is longer (measured from prosternum to point of buttocks) than tall (measured from the withers to the ground) in a ratio of 10 to 8. The length is derived from proper construction of forequarters and hindquarters and not from length of back. The withers are higher than and slightly sloping into the short, straight, strongly developed back. Loin is broad, strong, and relatively short. Croup is long and gradually sloping at an angle of approximately 23 degrees from the horizontal, flowing smoothly into a low set tail. The forechest is well filled and the prosternum is prominent. The chest is deep with the brisket reaching to the elbows. The distance from the withers to the lowest point of the chest equals approximately 48-50 percent of the dog’s height. Ribs are long, well sprung, and are carried well back. The abdomen is firmly held and never paunchy. Tuck-up in flank is moderate.
Faults: Dip behind the withers; sag or roach in topline; shelly chest; ribs too wide or round so as to interfere with action of elbows and forelegs; flat ribs; extreme greyhound-like tuck-up; croup too steep or too flat.
The tail is set on low in a natural extension of the sloping croup. The tail extends at least to the hock joint and usually below. When the dog is relaxed, the tail hangs in a slight curve, like a saber. When the dog is excited or moving, the tail may be raised and the curve accentuated. The ideal tail carriage is at or slightly below a vertical line extending from its base. A slightly higher tail carriage is acceptable but not preferred. The coat on the tail stands outward, giving the tail a bushy appearance.
Serious Faults: Tail too short; ankylosis.
Disqualification: Docked tail.
||Straight, seen from the front; only moderately broad stance; seen in profile, well angulated.
Shoulder: Shoulder blade long and well laid back; well angulated; whole shoulder strongly muscled.
Upper arm: Adequately long, strong muscles.
Elbows: Close fitting.
Forearm: Long, straight, sinewy.
Pastern: Firm and only slightly oblique.
||Shoulders -- The shoulder blade, or scapula, should be long and well laid back, the ideal angle being about 35° from the vertical. Shoulder layback is estimated by taking a line from the uppermost tip of the scapula to the point of the shoulder (where the scapula meets the humerus) to the ground. Lay-on is flat against the body, with the upper ends fairly close together, forming the point of the wither. Shoulder and upper arm are well muscled but never loaded. The upper arm (humerus) is almost equal in length to the scapula. In the ideal dog, a 102° angle is formed by imaginary lines connecting the point of the elbow with the forward-most point of the shoulder joint and with the highest point of the scapula. This angulation permits the proper maximum forward extension of the foreleg in the working shepherd dog. Faults in the shoulder assembly include: loose or loaded shoulders (bulging muscle pads), a pushed forward shoulder assembly, not enough length in the humerus and a scapula that is too short or steeply set. Forelegs -- The forelegs are straight and parallel with each other. Lower leg bones are oval in shape. Bone substantial but not excessive. Elbows are well held in with no tendency to turn in or out. The point of the elbow lies roughly in a vertical line under the point of wither. Pasterns -- Strong and springy with the ideal angle being about 25° from the vertical.
||The shoulder blades are long, well laid back (about 35 degrees from the vertical), and laid flat to the body with the upper tips fairly close together. Shoulders and upper arms are well muscled but never loaded. The upper arm appears to be equal in length to the shoulder blade and joins it at an angle of about 102 degrees. Elbows are close to the body. From the pasterns to the elbows, the forelegs are straight and strong with oval-shaped bones that are substantial, but not excessive. A straight line drawn from the withers to the ground should pass through the point of the elbow. Pasterns are strong and springy, sloping at about 25 degrees. The length of the forelegs is equal to or just slightly greater than half the height of the dog, measured at the withers.
||Seen from the rear straight and parallel; standing not too wide; seen from the side with adequate angulation.
Upper thigh: Medium-long, strongly muscled.
Lower thigh: Medium-long, oblique, with solid bone and well muscled.
Hock joint: Powerful, well angulated.
Hock: Medium-long, straight, sinewy; dewclaws should be removed, except in countries where their removal is forbidden by law.
||The whole of the rear assembly somewhat mirrors that of the front. In length and angulation, the scapula and the pelvis roughly equal each other, and the slant of the lower thigh bones roughly approximate that of the pelvis and of the humerus. The pelvis lies tilted backward at an approximate angle of 35° from the horizontal. Whether standing four-square or firmly and naturally with one rear leg extended behind the pelvis, the femur drops almost vertically from the hip socket, forming an approximate 125° angle with the pelvis. The upper and lower thigh bones are all roughly the same length. The thighs themselves, both upper and lower, are broad and heavily muscled. The stifle is well bent; its angulation must never be so steep that the dog’s hocks lie directly under any part of the croup or pelvis. In a correctly angulated dog that is standing in a natural three-point stance (show pose), an imaginary line dropped plumb from the point of the buttocks would land roughly 2 inches (5 cm) in front of the dog’s extended hind foot. Stifles that are too straight or overly long are faulty. The hock joints are strong and the hocks themselves, relative to the rest of the rear assembly, are short, clean and perpendicular to the ground. Whether in motion or at rest, there is no tendency for the hocks to turn in or out. From the rear, the hindlegs drop straight and parallel to each other and the feet point straight ahead.
||The hindquarters are broad and muscular and in balance with the forequarters. The pelvis lies tilted backward at an approximate angle of 35 degrees from the horizontal. The femur drops almost vertically from the hip socket, forming an approximate 125-degree angle with the pelvis. The upper and lower thighs are roughly the same length. The stifles are well bent and the rear pasterns are short, clean, and perpendicular to the ground. When standing or moving, there must be no tendency for the hocks to turn in or out. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs drop straight and parallel to each other and the feet point straight ahead.
| Feet and Movement
||Feet: Oval, hind feet a little longer than forefeet; toes tight and well arched; firm black pads; dark nails desired. Gait: Rhythmical sequence of steps with even drive and enduring; front legs reaching out far, with strong thrust; trot ground covering and easy.
Short and compact, toes held closely together and well arched. Pads are thick and tough affording the dog protection over rough terrain. Dewclaws appearing on the rear legs should be removed, those on the front legs may be removed but are usually left on. Nails should be short. Faults in running gear include: terrier-like feet, hare feet, thin pads or splayed feet.
Soundness is of paramount importance. Capability of quick and sudden movement is essential. The action is free, supple and tireless with the dog covering the most amount of ground with the minimum number of steps, all of the parts working together in harmony. From the side, the hindquarters drive forward with the hindfoot reaching far under the body to take firm hold of the ground. The powerful backward thrust is transmitted through a firm back to the front end, where the shoulder opens to the fullest extent possible and the foot reaches out toward the nose. The entire motion lifts the dog’s body slightly and carries it forward. The feet track close to the ground on both forward reach and backward push. At full trot, the back must remain firm, level, and free of roll, whip, or roach. At the extended trot, the dog may appear to overreach, with the hind foot passing to either side of the front foot. This is not faulty unless it causes the dog to move in a crab-like fashion. From both front or rear, the action is that of a single track. From the front, the legs move inward toward a center line under the body in a straight column of support from the point of shoulder to the pad. From the rear, the legs track inward toward a center line in a straight column of support from the hip to the pad. Moving close is faulty. Sidegait, coming and going are equally important and movement front and rear are not to be overlooked in favor of sidegait. Incorrect structure will be revealed in the moving animal. Flaws in gait such as weaving or interfering, paddling, flipping the front paws, weakness at the elbows, stiltiness, moving cow or bow-hocked or in a hackney fashion are highly objectionable and must be regarded as serious faults.
Feet are round and compact, with toes well arched. Pads are thick, hard, and darkly pigmented. Nails are strong. Front dewclaws may be removed but are normally left intact. Rear dewclaws, if any, are removed.
Faults: Hare feet; thin pads; splayed feet.
Disqualification: Total lack of pigment on pads.
It is essential that a White Shepherd be sound and capable of quick, sudden movement. When trotting, the White Shepherd moves with a long, efficient stride that is driven by a powerful forward thrust from the hindquarters. The rear leg, moving forward, swings under the foreleg and touches down in the place where the forefoot left an imprint. As the rear leg moves backward, the body is propelled forward. The front and rear feet remain close to the ground throughout. When trotting, the back remains firm and level. As the speed of the trot increases, there is a tendency to single track. Correct movement must be evaluated from front and rear as well as the side.
Serious Faults: Correct movement is essential to this breed so structural faults shall be penalized in proportion to how they diminish the dogs ability to move with efficiency and agility.
| Coat and Colour
||Skin: Without folds and wrinkles; dark pigmentation.
Hair: Medium length, dense, close-lying double coat or long double coat; abundant undercoat covered with hard, straight protection hair; face, ears and front of legs are covered with shorter hair; at the neck and the back of the legs the coat is slightly longer. Slightly wavy, hard hair is permitted.
The White Shepherd has a weather-resistant double coat. The outer coat is medium length, dense, straight, harsh and close lying. The undercoat is short, thick and fine in texture. The head and ears are covered with a smooth, somewhat softer hair while the hair covering the legs and paws is more harsh-textured. At the neck, the coat is slightly longer and heavier. A male may carry a thicker ruff than a female. The back of the legs has a slightly longer covering of hair and there is considerably more hair on the breeches and the underside of the tail. Both a short coat and a long coat are equally acceptable. An open coat is faulty.
The coat color is white as defined by the breed’s name and the ideal is pure white. Other coat markings that range from a very pale cream to a light biscuit tan are acceptable, but not preferred. It is important to note that when judging the White Shepherd, temperament, overall quality and movement are to be considered more important than coat color alone. Pigment -- Skin color is pink to gray with gray being preferred. The nose, lips and eye rims should be fully pigmented and black in color. A snow nose is acceptable but is not preferred. Deficiency of pigment is objectionable and dogs exhibiting faded or spotty pigmentation on nose, eye rims or lips should be faulted. Dogs exhibiting the total lack of pigment in the above named areas indicating possible albinism or those that definitely exhibit albinism (such as dogs with blue or pink eyes) must be disqualified.
The White Shepherd has a weather-resistant double coat. The outer coat is dense, straight, harsh, and close lying. The undercoat is short, thick, and fine in texture. At the neck, the coat may be slightly longer and heavier, particularly in males. The hair on the back of the legs is slightly longer than on the front. The coat on the rump and underside of the tail is longer and thicker than the body coat. The head and ears are covered with a smooth, somewhat softer hair while the hair covering the legs and paws has a harsher texture.
Fault: open coat.
Ideal coat color is a pure white. Colors ranging from a very light cream to a light biscuit tan are acceptable but not preferred. Skin color is pink to gray, with gray preferred. Nose, lips, eye rims, and pads are fully pigmented and black in color. In judging the White Shepherd, temperament, overall quality and movement are considered more important than coat color alone.
Faults: Faded or spotty pigmentation.
Disqualifications: Any color other than those listed above; albinism.
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the serious- ness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
- Slight deer colour (light yellow or fawny shading) on eartips, back and upperside of the tail.
- Partial loss of pigment of flecked appearance on noseleather, lips and/or eye rims.
- Heavy appearance, too short build (square outline)
- Masculinity or femininity not clearly defined .
- Missing more than two PM1; the M3 are not taken into account.
- Drop (hanging) ears, semi-pricked ears, button ears.
- Strongly sloping backline.
- Ringtail, kinky tail, hook tail, tail carried over back.
- Soft, silky topcoat; woolly, curly, open coat; distinctly long hair without undercoat.
- Distinct deer colour (distinct yellowish or tawny discolouring) on eartips, back and upperside of the tail.
Any deviation from these listed specifications is a fault. In determining whether a fault is minor, serious or major, these two factors should be used as a guide:
1. The extent to which it deviates from breed type.
2. The extent to which such deviation would actually affect the working ability of the dog.
||Faults: Overly long, narrow, or Collie-like head; insufficient stop. Round or domed skull. Snipey muzzle; receding lower jaw. Missing first premolars; level bite. Round or protruding eyes. Ewe neck; dewlap. Dip behind the withers; sag or roach in topline; shelly chest; ribs too wide or round so as to interfere with action of elbows and forelegs; flat ribs; extreme greyhound-like tuck-up; croup too steep or too flat. Hare feet; thin pads; splayed feet. Open coat. Faded or spotty pigmentation. Serious Faults: Missing teeth other than first premolars; overshot. Tail too short; ankylosis. More than 2 inches of height in either direction of the ideal. Correct movement is essential to this breed so structural faults shall be penalized in proportion to how they diminish the dogs ability to move with efficiency and agility.
Overly shy or aggressive.
One eye or both eyes blue, protruding eyes.
Over-or undershot mouth, wry mouth.
Total loss of pigment on nose, lips and/or eye rims.
Total loss of pigment in the skin and on the pads.
NB: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
||Disqualifications: Blue or pink eyes. Cropped or hanging ears. Undershot bite. Tails that are too short or docked. Total lack of pigment on the nose, eye rims or lips or dogs that exhibit definite signs of albinism. Monorchids or cryptorchids. Any dog that has been surgically or cosmetically altered. Any dog that attempts to bite the judge.
||Disqualifications: Blue or pink eyes. Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Undershot. Wry mouth. Blue or pink eyes. Cropped ears. Drop or tipped ears. Docked tail. Total lack of pigment on the nose, eye rims, lips, or pads. Any color other than those listed above. Albinism.